Accessed November 14, Feigelman S.
- Migration und Bildung: Ungleiche Bildungschancen für Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund? (German Edition).
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Middle childhood. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Normal development. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap 7. Updated by: Neil K. Editorial team. School-age children development. For girls, secondary sex characteristics include: Breast development Underarm and pubic hair growth For boys, they include: Growth of underarm, chest, and pubic hair Growth of testicles and penis SCHOOL By age 5, most children are ready to start learning in a school setting.
There are many causes of school failure, including: Learning disabilities, such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider.
How Schools Develop Student Agency
School-age children are highly active. They need physical activity and peer approval, and want to try more daring and adventurous behaviors. Children should be taught to play sports in appropriate, safe, supervised areas, with proper equipment and rules. Bicycles, skateboards, in-line skates, and other types of recreational sports equipment should fit the child.
They should be used only while following traffic and pedestrian rules, and while using safety equipment such as knee, elbow, and wrist pads or braces, and helmets. Sports equipment should not be used at night or in extreme weather conditions. Swimming and water safety lessons may help prevent drowning. Safety instruction regarding matches, lighters, barbecues, stoves, and open fires can prevent major burns.
Wearing seat belts is the most important way to prevent major injury or death from a motor vehicle accident. If language skills appear to be lagging, request a speech and language evaluation. Keep close communication with teachers, other school employees, and parents of your child's friends so you are aware of possible problems. Encourage children to express themselves openly and talk about concerns without fear of punishment. While encouraging children to participate in a variety of social and physical experiences, be careful not to over-schedule free time.
Free play or simple, quiet time is important so the child does not always feel pushed to perform. Potential leaders should be provided with support to develop the pedagogical expertise this requires, as well as the skills needed to lift the performance of colleagues, from early in their career.
High-performing leaders consistently demonstrate sophisticated personal and interpersonal qualities, including:. They apply these qualities and skills to understand and respond to culture and community, develop strong relationships, inspire and challenge others, and manage difficult situations and conversations. The development of future leaders should emphasise the growth of these skills over time and from early in their careers.
High-quality professional learning matched to capability and school and community context is important for developing the behaviour of future school leaders. By providing opportunities to lead, professional learning and time to act on feedback can be provided in context. Learning should take place in a culture where individuals are expected to be reflective and active learners, and where there are performance and development processes that provide them with frequent, constructive feedback and support to improve their leadership.
The Charter and the Framework describe the culture and processes for effective collaboration and professional growth.
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These should be implemented in all Australian schools. Effective leadership development is a career-long process that involves a range of professional learning activities. Extended experiences that involve learning within the context of work allow individuals to practise and refine their skills in real situations and receive ongoing feedback. These experiences contribute most effectively to sustained behaviour change and should be factored into the ongoing development of future leaders. Other experiences that focus primarily on acquiring new knowledge must be balanced with opportunities to translate that knowledge into practice.
When diverse and extensive professional learning experiences are complemented with access to relevant and timely advice and support from colleagues, mentors and coaches, growth is accelerated. Networks foster social capital across the jurisdiction or school, and provide structures for individuals to seek help from others. Establishing networks should be deliberate and a core element of professional learning. The pathways to leadership are varied and principals play an important role in supporting teachers on their journey.
This role is outlined in the Principal Standard, which sets the expectation that principals will support all staff to build their leadership capacity. This begins with principals understanding their position as a role model for emerging leaders and aspiring principals.
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The role of principal brings enormous reward and satisfaction, and it is important colleagues have the opportunity to see the role in the best light possible. When principals, along with their leadership team, understand and value their role in leadership development, they are key enablers to finding and developing future leaders. They should be supported to prioritise the development of leadership within and beyond their schools, and build the capacity to carry out this important work. To make sure this happens, current principals and school leaders should be provided with targeted professional learning experiences to build knowledge and skills in leadership development strategies, and the expectation for leadership development should be built into their performance and development goals.
Effective jurisdictions and schools make the most of their workforce and give successful leaders scope to use their expertise to lead professional and organisational development. Explicit,formalised roles for expert current and retired principals, as well as other school leaders, should be established to support a shared responsibility for the development of future leaders. Examples of these are:. Principals who engage and develop potential leaders are more effective in attracting and retaining individuals to leadership positions. This involves using leadership knowledge and expertise to structure professional conversations with future leaders.
The positive effects of targeted, purposeful and systematic coaching on career development are well recognised, with those who receive coaching more likely to set goals for their development, seek ideas for improvement, act on feedback from colleagues and supervisors, and improve their performance. Coaching is a skill and comprehensive training should be provided to help principals develop the capacity to do it effectively. It is important that leadership development activities are evaluated for impact and that findings are used to inform future strategic directions.
Successful jurisdictions and schools are increasingly using data and metrics to track and report on leadership development achievements, and to inform decision-making on future actions and investments. By collectively identifying and articulating the objectives of leadership development strategies before implementation, jurisdictions and schools can identify appropriate metrics and measurement methods, track progress over time, and assess success. Building on success and addressing areas for development as a key focus for ongoing review and implementation will improve provision of leadership development.
By providing regular and diverse opportunities to engage in leadership, those individuals with a particular aptitude and interest in principalship will emerge. It is important that these emerging leaders are identified and provided with clear career pathways, strong preparatory experiences, and ongoing support. Clear career pathways through middle and senior leadership positions help retain emerging leaders in the profession and motivate them to pursue future leadership opportunities. When formal leadership roles are fully integrated with and underpinned by broader professional learning and performance and development processes, emerging leaders have the necessary structures to reflect on their progress along the career pathway.
Informal leadership roles also provide platforms for developing aspiring principals. When a range of formal and informal methods and data are used to identify potential principals, it offers a more comprehensive picture of their leadership potential. A key resource in this process should be the expertise of serving principals, and jurisdictions and employers should support them to understand their critical role in the principal preparation process and develop the necessary knowledge and skills to recognise potential.
Implementing purposeful strategies and using multiple, objective methods helps to find eligible candidates who may not have identified themselves as a potential principal and increases equality and diversity within the aspirant pool. Educational research continues to shape new thinking for what works best for learners, technological advances are shaping educational directions, and the cultural diversity of school communities is increasing. As a result, the role of school principal in Australia is complex and evolving.
By developing a disposition for learning, a broad range of skills, and the confidence and aptitude to apply them with impact, aspiring and new principals will be better prepared to keep pace with trends and new research, and respond effectively to culturally diverse communities. This helps to develop principals who are agile, informed and successful in the role. The aim of principal preparation must be to ensure a supply of suitably qualified and skilled applicants to meet demand.
Preparation should be comprehensive, aligned to the expectations set out in the Principal Standard, and ensure quality professional learning experiences are available to all those ready to undertake them so that aspiring principals are ready to step into principalship and begin their ongoing development in the role. Formal leadership preparation programs provide a discrete, time-bound experience that can be factored into a full-time workload, and an opportunity for participants to step out of their role and reflect on their next step along the professional pathway.
They should accommodate the existing knowledge and skills of participants, using this as the starting point for learning.
Principal preparation programs should allow participants to apply theory in the context of their work and demonstrate transfer of learning into current or future contexts. Evaluating your Principal Preparation Programs: A Practical Guide sets out an evidence-based approach to assessing the impact of such initiatives. The guide supports the evaluation of impact of principal preparation programs and can assist with the continual improvement of provision.
Programs are just one approach to principal preparation. Internships, shadowing and acting principal roles, where substantial support is provided, also offer valuable principal preparation experiences that provide the opportunity for highly relevant, job-embedded professional learning. Formal and explicit processes to assess readiness for the principal role that are based on demonstrated leadership, rather than age, length of time in the profession or progression through formal leadership positions, support the professional development of aspiring principals.
These processes might include the achievement of a qualification, credential or certification. Recruitment and selection to principalship needs to attract a diverse range of applicants who meet the expectations set out in the Principal Standard and the needs of a school.